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戯言 - 文章を書くチカラ「なたもだ」

休日は、NHKオンデマンドで見逃し番組を幾つか視るのが習慣になっています。
その中には「テストの花道」という30分番組があり、すごく参考になります。
http://www.nhk.or.jp/hanamichi/
「テストの花道」はどういう番組かというと、やる気はあるけど、なかなか成果が
上がらない…、勉強の仕方が分からない…。その悩みを解決する番組です。
主に高校生などの受験生向けなんですが、社会人でもぜんぜん参考になります。
『人は「考え方」を手に入れたとたん、頭が良くなる生き物である。
君にできないはずはない。』
という枕詞で始まります。

取り上げるのは6/7放送、テストの花道 第11回「文章を書くチカラ」についてです。
私は文章を書くのが苦手ですので、いつも長文を書ける人を尊敬してしまいます。
今回は楽しく拝見し参考にさせていただきました。

この番組はテーマに対して『花道の種』なる項目を3つ挙げてその詳細を説明する
という進行スタイルです。
今回は文章を書くチカラとして、下記の3項目となります。
1.書き抜き
2.な・た・も・だ
3.作文から論文へ!

まず、文章を書けないのはどうしてかというところの理由として、
・書き出しが上手くいかない
・文と文のつなぎ方がわからない
・始めと終わりで意見が変わる
というようなことが生徒側の意見として挙げられておりました。

■1.書き出し
私は○○が好きだ
私は○○がおかしいと思う

気になることを抜きだす

文章のテーマに対して自分が気になること、面白いと思うことを抜き出してみます。
すると、そこから自分の意見ができてきます。
それを次に紹介する「なたもだ」によって使って書くと論理的な文章が出来上がる。

■2.な・た・も・だ
人に分かりやすく伝えるための情報を引き出す呪文
「なたもだ」の考案者 国語作文教育研究所 所長 宮川俊彦さん
な … なぜなら その理由を考えてみる
た … たとえば ①具体例を書く、②客観的な意見や見方を書く 
        (読み手のイメージを膨らませわかりやすくする情報となる)
も … もしも  仮の設定を作り別の視点から考える
だ … だから  結論を書き出すきっかけ

「なたもだ」で出した要素をまとめると文章が完成

★もしもの重要性(花道の先輩の意見)
・自分の主張と違う立場に立って、自分の主張を見つめ直せる。
・説得力がます作業でもある。
・自分が正しいという側に立ったとき、正しくない側の人がどういうキモチで
 書くのか予想した上で、反例として3つくらいだしてみる。
・もしもがあることによって、自分の主張が客観的になる。
 一歩引いた眼になって、いろんな反例を出してそれをつぶしていくことで、
 自分の主張がすごい正当化される。

★「なたもだ」は書くだけじゃない(花道の先輩の意見)
・読む時にも整理しながら読める
・英語はこの形になっている、作者の言いたいことが分かりやすくなる。
・世界史とか日本史とか歴史の裏背景、なぜここに攻め入ったのかとか
・用語ばかり暗記しようとしても、なかなか覚えきれない
 自分の中でかみくだいて覚えていく時に「なたもだ」が出てくる自然にね。
 例えば、織田信長が桶狭間で今川義元に奇襲をかけたと、なぜならば…
 もしも、その時に奇襲をかけてなかったらとかね。
・それを考えることで、その時の時代背景とかも考えなきゃないけない
・複雑になった世の中を整理していく、一つ一つに「なぜなら」と「もしも」というふうに
 考えていくこと、そうするとすごく整理しやすくなって分かりやすいんじゃないかな

■3.作文から論文へ!
「作文」から「論文」にするテクニック
① ~である 文章の語尾 
ですます調をである調に変更する。

ですます調 「~です」「~ます」

である調 「~だ」「~である」

である調の文体例
・~だ
・~である
・~といわれている
など

②.複数の根拠
自分の意見に対して、複数の根拠を順番に書いていく

③.読み手を意識する
読み手が採点者だった場合
・どんな言葉を選べば理解されるか
・情報が十分そろっているかどうか

作文から論文への花道
http://passacaglia.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2010/06/post-6f8b.html
作文の書き方アドバイス
http://homepage1.nifty.com/moritake/kokugo/sakubun-point.htm

投稿日時 : 2010年6月21日 2:08

コメントを追加

# re: 戯言 - 文章を書くチカラ「なたもだ」 2010/06/21 10:17 はつね

> ですます調をである調に変更する。

読み手を意識する結果として、ですます調にするかである調にするかを検討するものだと思います。
単純に「である調」にするのはそれこそ、読み手を意識していないです。

# 
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# re: 戯言 - 文章を書くチカラ「なたもだ」 2010/10/09 9:47 ロー

論文にですます調は使えませんよ。

常識です。

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